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Mortgage Discrimination

House & Apartment

This article explains protections against mortgage discrimination.

Here, learn about federal protections against mortgage discrimination, how to increase the likelihood of being approved for a mortgage loan, how to get the best loan terms, and what to do if you feel you have experienced mortgage discrimination.  


The information in this article was written by the Federal Trade Commission. It has been edited for style. 

Revised by on December 4, 2022. 

Are there federal protections against mortgage discrimination?

Yes. Two federal laws, the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA) and the Fair Housing Act (FHA), offer protections against discrimination.

How does the ECOA protect me?

The ECOA prohibits credit discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, age, or whether you receive income from a public assistance program.  

Creditors may ask you for most of this information in certain situations, but they may not use it as a reason to deny you credit or to set the terms of your credit. They are never allowed to ask your religion.  

Everyone who participates in the decision to grant credit or in setting the terms of that credit, including real estate brokers who arrange financing, must comply with the ECOA. 

How does the FHA protect me?

The FHA prohibits discrimination in all aspects of residential real-estate related transactions, including: 

  • making loans to buy, build, repair, or improve a place to live; 

  • selling, brokering, or appraising residential real estate; and 

  • selling or renting a place to live. 

The FHA also forbids discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, handicaps, or familial status. That’s defined as children under 18 living with a parent or legal guardian, pregnant women, and people securing custody of children under 18. 

What does a lender have to do?

If you’re shopping for a mortgage, lenders must: 

  • consider reliable public assistance income the same way as other income. 

  • consider reliable income from part-time employment, Social Security, pensions, and annuities. 

  • consider reliable alimony, child support, or separate maintenance payments, if you choose to provide this information. A lender may ask for proof that you receive this income consistently. 

  • accept someone other than your spouse as a co-signer if a co-signer is needed. If you own the property with your spouse, he or she may be asked to sign documents that permit you to mortgage the property. 

What is a lender not allowed to do?

If you’re shopping for a mortgage, lenders must not: 

  • Discourage you from applying for a mortgage or reject your application because of your race, color, religion, national origin, sex, marital status, or age, or because you get public assistance. 

  • Consider your sex, race, or national origin, although you will be asked to disclose this information voluntarily to help federal agencies enforce anti-discrimination laws. However, a creditor may consider your immigration status and whether you have the right to remain in the country long enough to repay the debt. 

  • Impose different terms or conditions on a loan — like a higher interest rate or larger down payment — based on your sex, race, or other forbidden factors. 

  • Discourage you from buying because of the racial make-up of the neighborhood where you want to live or ask about your plans for having a family, although they can ask questions about expenses related to your dependents. 

  • Require a co-signer if you meet the lender’s requirements. 

How can I increase the chance I will be approved for a mortgage loan?

Potential creditors are entitled to use factors like your income, expenses, debts, and credit history to evaluate your application for a mortgage. You can strengthen your application by taking these basic steps: 

  • Before you apply for a mortgage, get a copy of your credit report. The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) requires each of the three nationwide consumer reporting companies — Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion — to provide you with a  free copy of your credit report, at your request, once every 12 months. To order your report, visit or call 1-877-322-8228. 

  • Read your report to make sure it is accurate and up-to-date. Credit reports sometimes include inaccurate information, such as accounts that aren’t yours or paid accounts that might be inaccurately reported as unpaid. If you find errors, dispute them with the consumer reporting company involved and tell the lender about the dispute. 

  • Clear up past due debts. Use the accurate information on your credit report to contact the companies you owe, verify the past due amount, and pay off or pay down the debt.

  • Give the lender any information that supports your application. For example, steady employment is important to many lenders. If you’ve recently changed jobs but have been steadily employed in the same field for several years, include that information on your application. If you’ve had problems paying bills in the past because of a job layoff or high medical expenses, write a letter to the lender explaining the causes of your past credit problems. If you ask lenders to consider this information, they must do so. 

  • Estimate the monthly payment you can afford. Knowing this information upfront will help you apply for a loan that fits your budget.

  • Determine your down payment. The amount of your down payment can determine the type of loans you qualify for.

How do I get the best loan terms?

To secure the best loan terms: 

  • Consider shopping with several lenders to compare the fees they charge. When comparing costs, remember to look at all fees charged on your loan, as well as the interest rate. 

  • Ask the loan officer or broker if the rate they quote you is the lowest offered that day. The loan officer or broker probably is basing the offer on a list of mortgage rates issued by the lender. Ask to see the list, called a "rate sheet." Regardless of whether you are allowed to see this internal company document, if you suspect you’re not being offered the lowest rates available, consider negotiating for a lower rate or going to another lender or broker. 

  • Negotiating is acceptable, and part of the process. Many of the fees for your loan, like origination, application, and processing fees, may be negotiable. Ask your loan officer or broker to explain each of the fees on your loan and whether the amounts are flexible.

I think I was discriminated against. What can I do?

If you think a creditor has rejected your loan application, charged you more for a loan, or offered you less-favorable terms based on illegal discrimination, there are steps you can take: 

  • Report any violations to the appropriate government agency. If the creditor declines your application, they must tell you the name and contact information for the agency to contact to report your concerns.

  • File an ECOA violation complaint at the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau’s website or call 855-411-2372. 

  • File an FHA violation complaint on the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) website or speak with a FHEO intake specialist at 1-800-669-9777 or 1-800-877-8339 (TTY). For details about the Fair Housing Act, contact the Office of Fair Housing and Equal Opportunity

  • Report your concerns to the creditor. Sometimes you can persuade the creditor to reconsider your application.

  • Consider suing the creditor in federal district court. If you win, you can recover your actual damages. The court might award you punitive damages under certain circumstances. You may also recover reasonable lawyers’ fees and court costs. Or you might consider finding other people with the same claim and get together to file a class action suit. 

More information

Learn more on the Mortgage Discrimination  and Shopping for a Mortgage FAQs pages, on the FTC website.

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