While there are several ways to gain employment authorization in the U.S., there are relatively few types of work visa. Work visas are documents authorizing a person to come to the United States for the specific purpose of employment. Most employment visas, including the H-1B Visa, are reserved for applicants with advanced technical skills, such as scientists and engineers. These visas typically require that the applicant have an employer “sponsor” in the U.S. who is committed to hiring them, and who has made assertions about the unavailability of similar applicants within the U.S. labor market. Other types of employment visas are available to individuals with special talents, such professional athletes and musicians, and for business owners abroad who are prepared to make a substantial investment in the U.S. economy (such as by opening a new office or factory).
While there are some employment visas available to low-skilled workers, these are primarily for seasonal work in the agricultural sector. They make up a relatively small percentage of the total number of employment visas the government issues each year, and are very difficult to obtain.